Tiny structure gives big boost to solar power


Princeton researchers have found a simple and economic way to nearly triple the efficiency of organic solar cells, the cheap and flexible plastic devices that many scientists believe could be the future of solar power.

The researchers, led by electrical engineer Stephen Chou, were able to increase the efficiency 175 percent by using a nanostructured “sandwich” of metal and plastic that collects and traps light. Chou said the technology also should increase the efficiency of conventional inorganic solar collectors, such as standard silicon solar panels, although he cautioned that his team has not yet completed research with inorganic devices.

Tiny structure gives big boost to solar powerChou said the research team used nanotechnology to overcome two primary challenges that cause solar cells to lose energy: light reflecting from the cell, and the inability to fully capture light that enters the cell.

With their new metallic sandwich, the researchers were able to address both problems. The sandwich – called a subwavelength plasmonic cavity – has an extraordinary ability to dampen reflection and trap light. The new technique allowed Chou’s team to create a solar cell that only reflects about 4 percent of light and absorbs as much as 96 percent. It demonstrates 52 percent higher efficiency in converting light to electrical energy than a conventional solar cell.

That is for direct sunlight. The structure achieves even more efficiency for light that strikes the solar cell at large angles, which occurs on cloudy days or when the cell is not directly facing the sun. By capturing these angled rays, the new structure boosts efficiency by an additional 81 percent, leading to the 175 percent total increase.

The physics behind the innovation is formidably complex. But the device structure, in concept, is fairly simple.


One Response to Tiny structure gives big boost to solar power

  1. woot December 7, 2012 at 9:36 am #

    Innovations such as this are a great indication of things to come. My only complaint is that it often takes years, even decades, for such advances to make their way into the marketplace so that average consumers can use them and find them in our everyday world. In other words, it seems that such innovations remain in the lab or academia far too long.

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