Skin cells from infertile men made into early stage sperm


May 3, 2014
Health

A Montana State University researcher and her co-researchers are receiving international attention for showing that skin cells from infertile men can be used to create the precursors of sperm – research that holds promise for treating male infertility.

The teams’ work published on May 1 in Cell Reports has been reported on by England’s GuardianTelegraph, and Independent newspapers as well as National Public Radio and many U.S. science news outlets.

The team took skin cells from men who suffer from a genetic disorder, known as azoospermia, which prevents them from producing sperm. Those skin cells were then turned into stem cells, specifically, induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPSC. Like other stem cells, iPSC have the ability to become any other type of cell.

The team then implanted the stem cells into the testes of mice where they produced the precursors to sperm. It was the first time such work has ever been done.

The research was carried out at Stanford University, but the paper was written at Montana State University by senior author Renee Reijo Pera, MSU’s new vice president for research. Reijo Pera came to MSU in January from Stanford where she had been director of Stanford University’s Center for Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Research and Education and the Center for Reproductive and Stem Cell Biology. She is regarded as one of the world authorities on embryonic stem cells.

The success of the stem cells in forming the precursors to sperm in the mice offer scientists a new way to study the causes of, and possible treatments for, male infertility. The findings hold promise that one day infertile men could have their own cells implanted in their testes as a treatment for infertility. Reijo Pera and the paper’s other authors caution that such a treatment would require much further research before being clinically viable.

“Infertility is remarkably common, affecting 10 to 15 percent of couples,” Reijo Pera said. “And the genetic causes of infertility are surprisingly prevalent among men. So progress in this area could potentially help thousands, if not millions, of couples around the world.”

Another implication of the paper is the possibility of using cells from endangered species to help boost their reproduction.

Contributing to the paper with Reijo Pera were Cyril Ramathal, lead author, Jens Durruthy-Durruthy and Joy Arakaki with the Institute for Stem Cell Biology & Regenerative Medicine, Departments of Genetics and Obstetrics and Gynecology at Stanford University; Meena Sukhwani and Kyle Orwing of the Magee Women’s Research Institute at the University of Pittsburgh; and Paul Turek, of the Turek Clinic in San Francisco.


Skin cells from infertile men made into early stage sperm

35 Responses to Skin cells from infertile men made into early stage sperm

  1. Spha.u14307104 May 5, 2014 at 4:29 am #

    Really wow what an amazing discovery, but just imagine your DNA, genes, child to be, transferred to a mouse, all in the name of survival. Scientific research or new intervention. No thanks! I do not agree with the above article at all cost. As for myself , I’ll better adopt than see my reflections be in a mouse version. Imagine a kid with two large front teeth, large ears and a tail and hairy, displayed in an exhibition, “As you can see there is no long any infertile man”.
    By the look of things the stem cell is feed by the mouse testes blood, nutrients, chemical and fluid exchanges ,metabolism etc. just like the other sperms cells inside the mouse tests, which means it can adapt and adopt some of the features and characteristics behavior,physical appearance of a mouse.

  2. Spha.u14307104 May 5, 2014 at 4:17 am #

    Really wow what an amazing discovery, but just imagine your DNA , genes , child to be , transferred to a mouse,all in the name of survival.scientific research or new intervention.
    No thanks! I’ll better adopt than see my reflections be in a mouse version.
    Imagine a kid with two large front teeth,large ears and a tail and hairy ,displayed in an exhibition ,”as you see there is no long any infertile man”.

    By the look of things the stem cell is feed by the mouse testes blood,nutrients,chemical exchanges ,metabolism etc. just like the other sperms cells inside the mouse tests, which means it can adapt and adopt some of the features and characteristics behavior,physical appearance of a mouse.

  3. u13143833 May 5, 2014 at 1:32 am #

    Great.

  4. LUNGILE(14128315) May 5, 2014 at 12:46 am #

    What health problems could the whole process of implanting stem cells in men’s testes have on them? Will it be possible to carry the procedure successfully without worrying about the long term effects that could afect the males? I wonder how much money it would cost to do this. Do you think the gene that causes infertility canjot be altered ? I mean with the advanced scientific research and lab equipment it could be possible. We are looking forward to seeing the results of the new discovery.

  5. u14017629 May 4, 2014 at 10:54 pm #

    This is truly an incredible discovery and this new research could have a profound impact on science as well as on the lives of the thousands of infertile couples. Everyone yearns to have their own biological children so for childless couples this research is nothing short of a miracle. Even though the research being done is in its early stages, it has the possibility to open many other doors. For example, perhaps the same can be done for female egg cells which could lead to a cure for female infertility? This research could also be useful when it comes to saving endangered animals and boosting their population numbers- particularly applicable with regards to South Africa’s Rhino population. However, even though this research is hugely beneficial there is still large controversy regarding stem cell research. Is it ethically correct? There is also unanswered questions about the negative effects of this research. Could the children being born in this way possibly have genetic defects?

  6. 12110770 May 4, 2014 at 10:36 pm #

    Clearly alot of research are still to be done. Research on mice is not enough. Our DNA is very similar to mice, but not 100%.

    If this is possible, wow it would be great. Science can truly better ones life. It can even help a couple have a child.

    If one looks at the situation from a love point view and not from a scientific point of view; having a child cannot solve problems! If you could not except your person for who they are, infertile or not, then what makes you think it will be possible to except them when another problem comes your way.

    So if one wants to bring science and humanity together there are steps to be followed. Say this works and they can help a infertile man. Before they do the experiment on him and help him, it will be important for a psycologist asks him and his parter excactly why they want to do this.

    Everything hapens for a reason in life. There is a reason why certain people are infertile and a reason why science is able to help those people

  7. u14126037 May 4, 2014 at 1:15 pm #

    This seems very promising indeed. Infertility has become a threat in many countries and many divorces now a days are because of the incapability to make a child. This will help fight such problems. However i have some questions in this regard:
    Is it possible that you make even more in depth research to find what species ca benefit from this?
    Because if they can they would help many endangered species.
    What about females? can this possibly create an opportunity to create female eggs as well? It is also a huge problem now a days.
    My last question would be the success rate? What average can you deduce about the success rate of such treatment?
    Thank you

  8. J.KOEN (u14144124) May 4, 2014 at 1:01 pm #

    This is an incredible finding made by the Montana State University. The possibility could exists to sovle the problem of endangered species. If male infertility could be overcome in the mice, this coud be applied to improve fertility in a variety of endagered species. Thus holding the potential of a greater number of offspring, ensuring the survival of the species. However as mentioned in the article such findings would aquire more research to determine factors such as the fertility of the offspring, adaptations, abnormalities and mutations.

  9. Fabian Henley (14092370) May 4, 2014 at 12:54 pm #

    This article is a source of one of the many great discoveries in the science field, as relationships will no longer be destroyed by the cause of infertility. However, there are always two sides to a coin. Yes, I am proud of this new discovery, but what are the negative aspects to this discovery that has been made?

  10. 13285964 May 4, 2014 at 12:36 pm #

    The research presented here may give hope to the many couples out there who hope to start a family but can not due to the male being infertile. According to Mayo clinic (http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/male-infertility/basics/definition/con-20033113)15 percent of men are infertile. Most if not all couples at some point in their relationship will want to have their own children, some couples may choose to adopt when they cannot conceive, but in some cases adoption is not what people desire. Sometimes people just want a baby of their own, which they created together. An adopted child maybe a reminder of the failed conception of their own child due to infertility. The research presented here gives hope to the couples who have been infected by infertility.

  11. 14104726 May 4, 2014 at 10:59 am #

    Often when a couple falls in love, they get married and after a while want to start a family.When the husband or wife’s infertility is discovered, it puts strain on the relationship, but often couples seek alternatives to still be able to have a biological family. In some cases the infertility cannot be cured and the couple has to deal with the fact that they will not be able to have a child of their own. The strain that is caused by this influences the relationship in such a way that the couple often starts to fight, and after months or years of strain the marriage ends in a divorce. According to Malan Lourens Viljoen inc., 20 980 divorces from civil marriages were processed in South Africa in 2011. (http://www.mlvlaw.co.za/hello-world/). Finding a cure for men’s infertility can possibly cause a dip in the rapidly increasing divorce numbers in our country.

  12. u14129427 May 4, 2014 at 9:54 am #

    Wow!!! Wouldn’t this be the discovery of a lifetime for our fast fading Rhino population!!!

    The controversy around the research and use of stem cells has been the cause of so many heated conversations and the morality of this part of science has been attacked by many religious and political groups.

    But just imagine the joy this could bring to hundreds of childless parents. I have been a witness to the heartache and emptiness the yearning of an own child can cause. This would give a lot of people the opportunity to fulfil their dreams of holding a new born baby in their arms.

    This is the reason why I truly hope that the research will be successfully completed and that the technology will be available to us normal people sooner than later.

    All we need now is for the same breakthrough to be made with the infertility problems of woman and a few hundred baby rhinos running around.

  13. 14048371 May 4, 2014 at 8:54 am #

    I find it quite hard to believe that there is any truly significant proof for the ideas stated in this article. First of all, they only looked at around 2200 marriages, which is almost nothing if you look at it on a large scale. Secondly the cultural and ethical backgrounds of the couples have to be brought into the equation, as some country have a higher divorce rate than others. you also need to look at the quality of the specific marriages before one partner became ill. If they were already having problems beforehand, they could possibly already have been heading towards divorce. I believe that if you add in all these different dynamics and variables, you will probably find that there would always have been around a thirty percent chance of divorce, irrelevant of the gender of the person that became ill. Therefore I do not agree with the research done in this article. I do believe that it is possible that some couples may get divorced if one becomes ill, but I think it has more to do with the character of the people in the relationship, and less with who becomes ill.

  14. Kekana RT 14052327 May 4, 2014 at 7:58 am #

    There has always been a lot of ethical issues around stem cells.The research conducted shed new to light and eventually changes the gravity of the situation.If skin cells can be manipulated to transform into sperm cells then this is truly a remarkable discovery.It goes to show that at times,following ethics doesn’t really help us much as scientists.Such researches are the ones which make people value science

  15. Karabo (14046874) May 4, 2014 at 7:19 am #

    This is a wonderful discovery, it goes to show that science is indeed the answer to most questions. The fact that the skin cells changed to sperm cells when they were placed in the rat means indirectly that there is hope that male infertility can somehow be conquered.

  16. 14122040 May 4, 2014 at 6:08 am #

    Stem cell research is an extremely disputable issue mainly because it is thought to defy what is “meant to be” and ultimately causes religious conflict. However, the use of stem cells to cure genetic disorders such as azoospermia, eliminate or decrease the rate of animal extinction and hopefully be the answer behind many other syndromes, diseases and disorders in the future is a beneficial study.
    With that said though, this study was done and worked on mice, could it work on humans too? If so although this highly beneficial science will give the gift of parenthood to some, aren’t we unnecessarily adding to the already growing population of the world, whereas we could use science to eliminate things such as hunger and diseases caused by dirty water etc? And is it not illegal to use animals as testers in science and technology? What if the study posed dire effects on the animal?
    This is definitely a revolutionary study, but it can definitely be negatively exploited.

  17. Gjizelle Nel (u14020492) May 4, 2014 at 5:24 am #

    This is an incredible discovery. Although I do understand that this is merely the beginning of the research and that it still needs a lot of research and testing, I truly am proud of the human race for developing technology this far.

    However I do have some concerns. Nothing has been mentioned about the side effects of the injection of these cells into the mice. I am not someone to blindly believe that just because it was not mentioned that there are no severe side effects. I am rather more of a pessimist believing that the whole truth has been kept from us if it does not mentioned all the aspects. I also agree on the comment about the world already being over populated and that this could worsen the problem.

    My personal opinion is that this is a revolutionary discovery when it comes to the reproduction of endangered species. Many species are on the verge of extinction and therefor, being the nature-loving person that I am, I truly wish that this be the answer to the problem of species going extinct. With every species that goes extinct, the earth and everything on it has to adapt and sometimes the change is not for the better.

    I wish this research all the best.

  18. u14110343 May 4, 2014 at 4:43 am #

    It is a miracle that we as a human species are making such great advances in the medical and scientific field. However, if we are discovering things such as stem cell research and many other great discoveries, why are we still testing on animals? They say this could help with endangered species, but what are they actually doing to stop the cause of these species being endangered? Yes you can help them produce more offspring but that just provides more targets for poachers, in a Rhino’s case, or means there will be even less ice for Polar Bears because of Global Warming. Back to the topic of male infertility, I do understand that everyone wants to have children o their own, I hope I will have my own one day too, but the reality is, the whole world struggles with overpopulation. So now why would you want to increase that problem?

  19. Jas (14123437) May 4, 2014 at 4:07 am #

    This is incredible! Particular interest is that of repopulating endangered species. What isn’t shown in this post however is if the planted stem cells had any affect on the mouse into which it was injected. Would this produce an unnaturally high production of testosterone? In which case this could cause problems amongst the animal kingdom as males would be fighting more often, causing a decrease in male population of the species and therefore a lower rate of reproduction.

    As stated above, this method of treating infertility still needs a lot of experimentation and research, but this is an exciting development in medicine in both human and animal cases.

    How would skin cells be turned into stem cells? Would this be a result of transformation, where cells detect fragments of DNA outside of their system, take up these fragments and then incorporate them into their own DNA?

  20. Malefo TG 13315278 May 4, 2014 at 2:45 am #

    Nicely done,what a good way to start for man who are infertile.This could be one of the best research this world could ever have more especially to man who are infertile.If you take a look at how painful it is for a family that doesn’t have children it is sad,i say bye bye to this genetic disorder called azoospermia which prevents man from producing sperm,and say big up to our intelligent scientist.

  21. 14087902 May 4, 2014 at 2:07 am #

    This is very intriguing as this can bring hope to couples who cannot have children of their own. However it may be a little controversial as a few problems could arise. Firstly adoption rates would decrease as couples will want children of their own. Secondly how much would such a procedure cost, if it’s similar to IVF fertilization, that is still very expensive in my opinion. It may not be affordable to many couples. Thirdly and lastly, if it’s a genetic problem that has cause the male to be infertile, won’t that affect his children because these genes may be passed down? it’s still amazing but it brings such issues up.

  22. Jessica u14007348 May 4, 2014 at 1:00 am #

    I entirely agree with Manakana Kamogelo (u14027110) that this may be the answer to many couples’ prayers but if the male is infertile is it not a genetic problem? Assuming that the infertility in males is due to faulty genes, this research will be detrimental to endangered species rather than beneficial. The reasoning behind this is because the faulty genes will be passed on to the offspring, in other words a higher numerical quantity of that particular species will exist but at the same time a higher percentage of that particular species will be infertile. In turn the species will be more and more reliant on humans for reproduction.

  23. Damon Munday (14008948) May 3, 2014 at 11:44 pm #

    Wow! What a medical breakthrough! Infertility in men is a significant problem in society, and is a problem men don’t feel comfortable talking about. Many men who struggle to have children are afraid of going for infertility tests, but this breakthrough may provide hope for infertile men.
    Stem cell research will always be a controversial issue and you’ll always have people who support it and who are against it. Yes, 14188849, maybe certain couple aren’t meant to have children, and yes there are many opportunities for adoption, however we are not in the place to judge others’ decisions until we are placed in the same situation.
    This new technology is far from perfect and being available to the public. It’s going to require many more hours of research and testing, before it is proven to be safe for the public. This new technology opens up doors for new young medical scientists and the future seems bright for stem cell research.

  24. Matthew(14104131 May 3, 2014 at 9:27 pm #

    Although this is a very controversial topic it is a very exciting and an amazing development. It is a very scary fact that 10% to 15 % of couples have infertility problems. This is why I believe that this research is beneficial because it gives the couples a chance of having there own baby which is a gift to an couple. If this research is a success do you this that they would place the sperm into another male and have it like a surrogate mother???

  25. 14105447-M Davids May 3, 2014 at 8:46 pm #

    The use of skin cells that are induced to stem cells is remarkable because they can form any other cells. This is great for the development of cells, and the production of sperm cells specifically. It allows men who cannot have children to have the opportunity to reproduce, as well as species that were not able to continue to reproduce can now produce offsprings. This is revolutionary because it allows species to continue to grow and develop. This can also decrease the extinction rate of various species and lead to an increase in the biodiversity.The future for stem cells development await a lot of hope for people’s lives and discoveries of success in the natural environment.

  26. 14047099 May 3, 2014 at 2:43 pm #

    Anything regarding stem cells always brings up some level of controversy. This is probably mostly due to the fact that in general people don’t understand much about it. When we talk about stem cells most people assume we are referring to embryonic stem cells derived from foetuses and not stem cells derived from other sources like human skin cells such as in this article. It is understandable since developing non-embryonic stem cells is a relatively new idea, only discovered in 2012.
    I was not aware that infertility was such a common problem but the new research is a step in the direction of solving this issue. However I agree with 14188849’s concerns about overpopulation and am concerned about the possible negative effects of this research.
    This article just goes to show the remarkable possibilities within stem cell research and I hope that it can be used in the future to fight other conditions such as cancer or to regrow lost organ or muscle tissue. I think the future of medical research lies in stem cell research.

  27. Josef Grobler (u14028052) May 3, 2014 at 1:37 pm #

    Producing sperm cells can open a lot of doors for future science. This could help people to save endangered species; it could also help many couples to have children even if they have the disorder of producing sperm or egg cells. This research will cause a decline in adoptions which can be good, but also negative because the possibility may arise that there will be more orphanages.

  28. Jamie Jaars u12166520 May 3, 2014 at 12:07 pm #

    What intrigued me the most about this article is that the discovery of the use of the induced pluripotent stem cells as a use a cure for azoospermia and as a fertility treatment could possibly decrease the amount of endangered species we have in this world and could possibly be used in the prevention of extinction by boosting their reproduction allowing successful fertilization and an increase in offspring produced. This could lead to an increase in the viability of many species which leads to an increase in the biodiversity across the globe.
    This research has lead to a possible solution to infertility of men due to the use of these stem cells as precursors to sperm by inserting them into the testes of males where they can take the form of newly formed sperm. In doing so the use of IVF will hopefully decrease as it is frowned upon by many people who thinks that it is an unnatural way of conceiving. This could decrease the extensive use of hormonal drugs that women have to take to prepare their bodies for procedures like IVF which could possibly decrease in chance of hormonal imbalances.

  29. Sedgeley (14053536) May 3, 2014 at 11:04 am #

    This is great news if you are an infertile man. In matric, Life Science taught us that human gametes (Sperm cells and Ovums) have only 23 chromosomes, while somatic cells (all the other cells) have 46 chromosomes. So taking a somatic cell to create a gamete would lead me to think which chromosomes should be used, and which should be discarded? I think it is interrupting the flow of nature in a way, the same way genetic modification and cloning does. I also tend to agree with 14188849. Instead of spending money on fertility treatment, invest the money into changing the life of a disadvantaged baby. However, I stand behind stem cell research the context of healing people and boosting endangered species (After all, it is because of human activities that these species are endangered), as I see this as being totally advantageous.

  30. Manakana Kamogelo (u14027110) May 3, 2014 at 10:22 am #

    Now there is hope for infertile men to have kids of their own since there is a possibility for their skin cells to be used to create the precursors of sperm. It is amazing how these research of treating male infertility has got so much consideration. This is like an answer to most couples’ prayer, having child of their own and not having to adopt. Using cells from endangered species to help boost reproduction of infertile men may be helpful but not overwhelming. Further research will be more helpful because it will tell if this treatment will also work well on humans. How will it be first tested on men?

  31. J.Naidoo(14012074) May 3, 2014 at 9:56 am #

    This is a revolutionary find, but i agree with 14188849. if one is born infertile maybe that is how it is meant to be like that. Humans and our technological advances are hindering that of natural selection and survival of the fittest.

    However this is still a remarkable find and will help a lot of couples around the world who have a problem with infertility. This treatment only creates the precursor of sperm, therefore it is not definite that infertility will be cured via this method, as stated by Gabriella 14072948. This is certainly one of the more promising treatments. Stem cells are the basis of the body and are able to form any other cell in the body and therefore leave this the most promising treatment.

  32. Litia Yssel 14014981 May 3, 2014 at 9:17 am #

    The discovery of genetic manipulation of skin cells to make sperm cells is revolutionary!

    Hopefully this discovery could eventually be applied to humans as well to assist infertile men to become biological fathers.

    This discovery means that couples would not need a third party sperm donor, but would be able to pass on their own genes and be true biological parents.

    It would be interesting to see how the costs of such treatment would compare to that of currently available treatments such as in vitro fertilization.

    I think there will also be less ethical issues regarding this genetic manipulation, because there is no potential life that is being terminated or altered, such as with embryo stem cell manipulation.

  33. 14188849 May 3, 2014 at 8:37 am #

    This groundbreaking technology is all good and well, but you have got to ask yourself, if a couple are not capable of having a child, maybe they are not meant to. There are countless children in this world who have been put up for adoption, and if a couple is so desperate to have a child surely their love and care would be well suited to an abandoned child? Isn’t the world struggling with an over population crisis?

  34. Julienza de Villiers (14044324) May 3, 2014 at 8:24 am #

    I agree that stem cell research topic has wound up a lot of controversy and bias. But evidently this could lead to a good cause. If this research could cure male infertility could it not do the same for women infertility if their skin cells are turned into stem cells and then into ova that could be impregnated and transplanted into the womb. If the percentage of infertile couples is that high, it would be perfect for them to have children with their genes. And to increase reproduction amongst endangered species could prevent them from becoming extinct. Maybe stem cell research could help make the world better and brighter.

  35. Gabriella 14072948 May 3, 2014 at 7:44 am #

    Stem cell research is a very controversial topic. However this stem cell research is not going to be met with a lot of criticism as the stem cells do not come from embryos, instead they are from the skin cells of an adult male. This research also brings up the animal testing debate as it may have worked in mice. but will it work in humans? If this research is successful in human trials it could change society drastically. The use of IVF and GIFT may steadily decrease and adoption rates would decrease as well. Stem cell research will always remain a ingenious yet controversial topic.

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