OUR GROUP. TGF-beta1 and AM inhibited gene transcript level mutually (real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction). AM suppressed the protein expression level of TGF-beta1 (Western blot), but TGF-beta1 might have no effect on AM secretion level. MMP-2 protein expression in HSCs was increased in response to TGF-beta1, and upregulation of MMP-2 expression stimulated with TGF-beta1 was suppressed by AM in dose-dependent manner (Western blot). AM decreased the phosphorylation level of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in HSCs treated with TGF-beta1, and TGF-beta1-induced MMP-2 expression was suppressed by adding Mitogen-activated protein Kinase/ERK (MEK) inhibitor U(0126) (Western blot).