From wikipedia : The Casimir effect is a physical force arising from a quantized field. Two closely spaced uncharged conductive plates without any external electromagnetic field will develop a force of attraction between themselves. In a classical description, the lack of an external field would mean that there is no field between the plates, and no force would be measured between them. From the perspective of QED( quantum electrodynamics) however, the plates do affect the virtual photons which constitute the field, and generate a net force, either an attraction or a repulsion, depending on the specific arrangement of the two plates. This force has been measured, and is a striking example of an effect purely due to second order quantization. Dutch physicists Hendrik Casimir and Dirk Polder first proposed the existence of the force and formulated an experiment to detect it in 1948 while participating in research at Philips Research Labs. The classic form of the experiment, described above, successfully demonstrated the force to within 15% of the value predicted by the theory. In 2003 this force was measured to within 5% of theory.
Presently Casimir effect is said to exclude longer vacuum fluctuations (aka larger virtual particles) in favor of shorter vacuum fluctuations (aka smaller virtual particles) which can fit an integer number of wavelengths between the plates or walls of a cavity. The process is sometimes called “up converting” because the cavity becomes occuppied by increasingly shorter wavelengths as the plates get closer together. In a recent paper by Professor Garret Moddel dated 30 October 2009 “Assessment of proposed electromagnetic quantum vacuum energy extraction methods” this exclusion of vacuum fluctuations is employed to explain anomalous heat gains of gas atoms in Casimir cavities. My own position which is based on a paper by Jan Naudts titled “On The Hydrino state of the relativistic hydrogen atom” is that these seemingly shorter wavelengths are actually the same longer wavelengths pivoted from our perspective inside the relativistic environment of a Casimir cavity. Mills and Moddel disguise this relativistic effect as catalytic action and Casimir effect respectively. Putting that aside, the long quote below from section C of Moddel’s paper is perhaps the best introduction to this technology presently available. It brings the reader to the same conclusions without the controversey of Mill’s Grand Unified theory or the relativistic environments suggested by the “Naudts” orbital. Moddel’s approach from the Casimir effect is accepted by present mainstream Physics.
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Pumping atoms through Casimir cavities Zero-point energy ground state and Casimir cavities There is a fundamental difference between the equilibrium state for heat and for ZPE. It is well understood that one cannot make use of thermal fluctuations under equilibrium conditions. To use the heat, there must be a temperature difference to promote a heat flow to obtain work, as reflected in the Carnot efficiency of Eq. (4). We cannot maintain a permanent temperature difference between a hot source and a cold sink in thermal contact with each other without expending energy, of course.
Similarly, without differences in some characteristic of ZPE in one region as compared to another it is difficult to understand what could drive ZPE flow to allow its extraction. If the ZPE represented the universal ground state, we could not make use of ZPE differences to do work. But the entropy and energy of ZPE are geometry dependent.32 “The vacuum state does not have a fixed energy value, but changes with boundary conditions.”33 In this way ZPE fluctuations differ fundamentally from thermal fluctuations. Inside a Casimir cavity the ZPF density is different than outside. This is a constant difference that is established as a result of the different boundary conditions inside and out. A particular state of thermal or chemical equilibrium can be characterized by a temperature or chemical potential, respectively. For an ideal Casimir cavity having perfectly reflecting surfaces it is possible to define a characteristic temperature that describes the state of equilibrium for zero-point energy and which depends only on cavity spacing. In a real system, however, no such parameter exists because the state is determined by boundary conditions in addition to cavity spacing, such as the cavity reflectivity as a function of wavelength, spacing uniformity, and general shape.
The next approach to extracting power from vacuum fluctuations makes use of the step in the ZPE ground state at the entrance to Casimir cavities. According to stochastic electrodynamics (SED), the energy of classical electron orbits in atoms is determined by a balance of emission and absorption of vacuum energy. By this view of the atom, electrons emit a continuous stream of Larmor radiation as a result of the acceleration they experience in their orbits. As the electrons release energy their orbits would spin down were it not for absorption of vacuum energy from the ZPF. This balancing of emission and absorption has been modeled and shown to yield the correct Bohr radius in hydrogen. Accordingly, the orbital energies of atoms inside Casimir cavities should be shifted if the cavity spacing blocks the ZPF required to support a particular atomic orbital. A suitable term for this is the “Casimir-Lamb shift”. The energy levels of electron orbitals in atoms are determined by sets of quantum numbers. However the electromagnetic quantum vacuum can change these energies, as exhibited in the well known Lamb shift. In the case of the Lamb shift the nucleus of the atom (a single proton for hydrogen) slightly modifies the quantum vacuum in its vicinity. The result is that the 2P1/2 and 2S1/2 orbitals, which should have the same energy, are slightly shifted since they spread over slightly different distances from the nucleus, and hence experience a slightly different electromagnetic quantum vacuum. The electromagnetic quantum vacuum can be altered in a much more significant way in a Casimir cavity. Hence the term, Casimir-Lamb shift.
Currently, only a semi-classical analysis using SED has been used to predict this shift of orbital energies. Although much of SED theory has been applied successfully in producing results that are consistent with standard quantum mechanics, there have not been any reports yet in which this Casimir-Lamb shift has been replicated using quantum electrodynamics. An exploratory experiment to test for a shift in the molecular ground state of H2 gas flowing through a 1 um Casimir cavity was carried out, but without a definitive result.
2. The extraction process In a 2008 patent,8 Haisch and Moddel describe a method to extract power from vacuum fluctuations that makes use this effect of Casimir cavities on electron orbitals. The process of atoms flowing into and out from Casimir cavities is depicted in Fig. 6. In the upper part of the loop gas is pumped first through a region surrounded by a radiation absorber, and then through a Casimir cavity. As the atoms enter the Casimir cavity, their orbitals spin down and release electromagnetic radiation, depicted by the small outward pointing arrows, which is extracted by the absorber. On exiting the cavity at the top left, the ambient ZPF re-energizes the orbitals, depicted by the small inward pointing arrows. The gas then flows through a pump and is recirculated through the system. The system functions like a heat pump, pumping energy from an external source to a local absorber.
Fig. 6. System to pump energy continuously from the vacuum, as proposed by Haisch and Moddel.8 As gas enters the Casimir cavity the electron orbitals of the gas atoms spin down in energy, emitting Larmour radiation, shown as small arrows pointing outwards. The radiant energy is absorbed and extracted. When the atoms exit the Casimir cavity, the atomic orbitals are recharged to their initial level by the ambient zero-point field, shown by the inward pointing small arrows.
3. Violations of physical law In examining whether this process violates any physical laws, I first ask whether it conflicts with the conservative nature of the Casimir force. It does not because although Casimir plates are used, they do not move as part of the process. Therefore, this process differs from the mechanical process described earlier which does make use of cyclic Casimir plate motion in an attempt to extract power from Casimir attraction. Next comes the question as to whether there is a detailed balance that would render the process invalid. If the gas were stationary, then we would expect a detailed balance of radiation to exist between the atoms and their environment at the entrance and exit to the cavity. However, the gas is flowing and in such a dynamic situation there is no requirement for detailed balance.
Might there be a different sort of balance, in which the energy that is radiated as the gas enters the cavity is simply reabsorbed as the gas exits, leaving no net energy to do work? The asymmetry of the system prevents that from occurring. The local absorber at the entrance intercepts the emitted radiation, while the lack of a local absorber at the exit allows the gas to interact with more distant ZPFs. A potential flaw in this argument of a separation between emission and absorption might be that vacuum fluctuations are non-local and connect distant locations. Not enough is known about ZPF to determine whether this is a serious possibility, and there is no evidence at this time that it is non-local. Another question is whether the radiated power extracted at the entrance to the Casimir cavity is used up in pumping gas through the system. There are two parts to the pumping power requirement, the power required to pump the gas through the cavity, and the power required to pump into and out from the cavity:
a) The power required to pump the gas through the cavity is known from studies of gas flow through nanopores,39 and shown in the patent8 to be less than 1% of the power that may be obtained from the process.
b) There are two consideration regarding the power required to pump the gas into and out from the cavity:
i. Given that the atoms are in a lower energy state inside the cavity than outside, there may be a force required to pump the gas out from the cavity. Since that same force presumably would attract the gas into the cavity these two forces should cancel in steady-state operation.
ii. According to SED, the atoms about to enter the cavity have fully energized electronic orbitals, whereas the atoms about to exit have lower energy orbitals. This difference in the state of the atoms might contradict argument made just previously that the pumping force in and pumping force out cancel each other. On the other hand, the orbital energetics of the atoms should have no direct effect on the inter-atomic forces of the gas,40 and so should not increase the power required to pump the gas through the system. There are some ambiguities here, but taken as a whole it does not appear that the radiated power extracted at the entrance to the Casimir cavity is required to power the circulation pump.
In summary, the gas-flow process does not require Casimir plates to move, is not subject to detailed balance, provides asymmetry to separate emission from absorption, and does not require substantial pumping power. There appear to be no fundamental violations of physical law that would preclude the pumping of gas through Casimir cavities from being used to extract ZPE from the vacuum. Whether this approach will work in practice is not yet known.
The tremendous energy density in the zero-point field (ZPF) makes it very tempting to attempt to tap it for power. Furthermore, the fact that these vacuum fluctuations may be distinguished from thermal fluctuations and are not under the usual thermal equilibrium make it tempting to try to skirt second law of thermodynamics constraints. However, zero-point energy (ZPE) is in a state of true equilibrium, and the constraints that apply to equilibrium systems apply to it. In particular, any attempt to use nonlinear process, such as with a diode, cannot break thermodynamic reversibility in a system in equilibrium. Detailed balance arguments apply. The force exhibited between opposing plates of a Casimir cavity makes it temping to make use of the potential energy to obtain power. Unfortunately, the Casimir force is conservative. Therefore in any attempt to obtain power by cycling Casimir cavity spacing the energy gained in one part of the cycle must be paid back in another. We treat thermal fluctuations, usually thought of as an expression of Planck’s law, and ZPE vacuum fluctuations, usually associated with the ground state of a quantum system, as if they were separate forms of energy. However, the ZPE energy density given in equation (1) may be re-expressed in the form41.
(5) The fact that these two seemingly separate concepts can be merged into a single formalism suggests that thermal and ZPE fluctuations are fundamentally similar. More rigorously, Planck’s law can be seen as consequence of ZPE,42 and is “inherited” from it.43 In more than a century of theory and experimentation we have not been able to extract usable energy from thermal
fluctuations, and it might seem that we are destined to find ourselves in a similar situation with attempts to extract usable energy from ZPE.
There is, however, a distinction that can be drawn between the two cases, which has to do with the nature of the ZPE equilibrium state. The equilibrium ZPE energy density is a function of the local geometry. Two thermal reservoirs at different temperatures that are in contact with each other cannot be in equilibrium; heat will flow from one to the other. Two ZPE reservoirs having
different energy densities that are in contact with each other can, however, be in equilibrium. For example, a Casimir cavity can be in direct contact (open at its edges) with the free space surrounding it such that the ZPE density inside and outside the cavity are different without any net flow of energy between the two regions. Furthermore, extracting ZPE from the vacuum does not violate the second law of thermodynamics.14 Our apparent lack of success in extracting energy from the vacuum thus far leads to two possible conclusions. Either fundamental constraints beyond what have been discussed here and the nature of ZPE preclude extraction, or it is feasible and we just need to find a suitable technology.
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My relativistic interpretation however posits these longer wavelength fluctuations in the Moddel description were NOT actually excluded, The longer wavelengths instead only appear shorter from our perspective outside the Casimir cavity. The vacuum fluctuation wavelength instead pivots on the time axis in proportion to Casimir force (1/plate spacing^4) as shown below
This theory is in keeping with papers by Naudts and Bourgoin proposing a relativistic state of hydrogen with 137 fractional states. Their papers were directed at claims and controversy surrounding fractional hydrogen and their equations used math only suitable for a relativistic environment. This means that one must first assume the 10nm pores of Rainey nickel or the 100nm Casimir cavities of the Jovian prototype (competitor) represent a relativistic environment. Fortunately this is a valid proposition according to “Cavity QED” by Zofia Bialynicka-Birula. She proposes a broken isotropy of the gravitational field and a varying equivalence boundary based on cavities meeting Casimir geometry. Her paper suggested use of the Poincare group for electrons predating Bourgoin’s use of full spin equations instead of the Dirac equations. The premise being that a constant change in local geometry, results in constantly changing inertial frames inside the cavity. an observer outside the cavity thus can model electrons inside the cavity as occupying the same spatial position in different inertial frames.
I am proposing that claims of anomalous heat such as the Black Light Process and Arata – Zhang work with Pd powders are evidence of this relativistic interpretation for Casimir effect. IMHO Casimir “PLATES” cause equivalent acceleration on the mesoscopic scale in much the same manner as a large mass causes gravity on the macro scale. The big difference is the “CAVITY” between the two plates represents a sudden break in this equivalent acceleration (something that cannot occur at the macro scale)- The animation of the sailing ship below shows a sail with a small hole in it letting wind stream through the sail many times faster than the ambient wind speed pushing the ship.
if the hole in the sail (or cavity between the plates) is small enough it can never exhaust the pressure building in the sail (or on the plates) and a permanent wind stream (or “time” stream) is established. I believe this is what occurs in the Casimir cavity only it is the vacuum fluctuations accumulated on the outside of the plates streaming through instead of wind. I am proposing a neo Lorentzian ether model where Lorentz’s moving ether resides on the time axis instead of the spatial axis. Vacuum fluctuations in this model act like dye in the bloodstream to trace out the path of the time stream as it intersects the spatial axis. From a temporal perspective space is a flat two dimensional plane and Casimir “parallel plates” are actually side by side. The motion of this “ether/time stream” through our “flat” 2D spatial plane is opposed by matter much like a sail opposes wind flow. This motion on the time axis manifests itself as vacuum fluctuations which constantly wink into and out of existence in the “Present”. I am positing that vacuum fluctuations exist as a potential traveling through time only materializing for the briefest instant as they pass through our plane.
in the animation, our 3D illusion collapses to a 2d plane where time only intercepts our plane in the “Present”. Vacuum fluctuations accumulate a pressure like wind in a sail that spills through the cavity faster than the ambient wind or isotropic value of the time stream outside the cavity. For the tiny confines of the Casimir cavity time occurs faster than the stream that created it. Like a sail this effect needs containment and can only occur when fully surounding the hole. the pressure accumulated by plate geometry is immediately dissipated at the edges of the bulk material similar to venturi effect it needs to restrict passage.
This model would also explain theresults of the Michelson–Morley experiment since the etheric motion occurs only on the time axis. The model might also be considered a quantum extension of the Puthoff atomic model where these same vacuum fluctuations are described as a “pressure” which keeps orbitals from decaying and establishes the stable orbits for every element across the periodic chart.
The point of this blog is to propose that change in Casimir effect is a source of energy. I have pointed out in previous blogs that skeletal catalyst pores are of Casimir geometry and that change in Casimir effect is the likely engine behind all catalytic action – not just skeletal catalysts. This is reinforced by recent work by Peng Chen et all at Cornell University that catalytic action in nanotubes only occurs in nanotubes at the openings and defects where the Casimir geometry changes. In the 2009 book “Advances in Casimir effect” Bordag states that Casimir plates can be treated as fields. Anomalous heat between atomic hydrogen and rigid catalysts of Casimimir geometry has been researched for decades by examining the products of electrolytic cells, plasmas and skeletal catalysts. I am positing that the “anomalous” chemistry is ashless and the energy source is not the atoms themselves which only act as rectifiers inside the cavity. It is the bond state and local changes in cavity geometry (= catalytic action?) that pushes the atoms and diatoms to great differences in acceleration (fractional states). The research focused on the atom wall interactions or atom – atom and resulting artifacts is only going to identify normal chemistry / hydrides. Below is a simulation of atomic hydrogen in a Casimir cavity focused on only ashless chemistry where change in Casimir force acts to disassociate fractional diatoms. It will open in a separate window so that you can still read the description .
Simulation of Fractional Hydrogen ash less chemistry in Flash actionscript
The large spheres outside the cavity are atomic hydrogen which occasionally recombines to form h2 , the h2 either gets repelled away from the entrance to the cavity or disassociates due to change in Casimir force which wants to change the atoms to a fractional state in opposition to the bond. H1 translates freely into and out of the cavity. Once inside the atoms shrink to fractional states – if two different fractional orbitals form a fractional h2 molecule they give off what appears to be a blue photon from our perspective outside the cavity. The new fractional molecule can no longer be simply repelled away from the change in Casimir force because it is already at an intermediate fractional value which is going to change no matter which direction gas law drives the molecule (assuming the geometry is dynamic and not smooth like inside a nanotube that only has cat action at openings and defects). As the molecule moves Casimir force accumulates trying to change the fractional orbit until it finally breaks the diatomic bond allowing the translation to occur.
I am not saying that hydrogen isn’t stored as hydrides but this sim only focuses on the ash less chemistry that I believe occurs when the stage is properly set with atomic gas and a rigid catalyst with vigorous geometry (confinement). The fractional orbits inside the cavity react differently to Casimir effect depending on their bond state. diatoms outside the cavity resist the change in isotropy and get repelled or disassociated by proximity to the mouth of the cavity while atoms can translate in and out freely.
The Naudts orbital resolved the controversy regarding fractional hydrogen but introduced “relativistic” hydrogen inside a stationary reactor! This is not hydrogen accelerated through space to near luminal velocities; this concept requires “equivalent motion” between time and space but unlike the slowing of time by a gravitational mass associated with normal equivalence or true acceleration, this solution accelerates time. When defects or cavities occur in a conductive mass meeting Casimir geometry the opposition to time flow by the “plates” is reversed in the cavity. The cavity acts like a small hole in a large sail releasing the pressure accumulated by the “plates” into a tiny “accelerated” stream many times faster than the isotropic value outside the cavity. The accelerated stream inside the Casimir cavity intercepts the spatial axis many times faster than normal. This accelerates time for all particles and waves inside the cavity instead of slowing time normally associated with equivalence for the stationary observer. This makes the larger vacuum fluctuations of Casimir theory appear smaller between the plates and makes atomic orbitals appear fractional from our perspective. These orbitals occupy equivalent inertial frames
accumulating time dilation inside the cavity and allowing use of full spin equations to describe their positions by an observer outside the cavity. Effectively it allows electrons to be modeled occupying the same spatial positions like photons. When these equations were used to solve for fractional states they were dictating a relativistic environment.
The big difference between relativistic hydrogen in space and relativistic hydrogen in a stationary Casimir cavity is that time dilation which normally slows time for real or equivalent acceleration is flipped inside the cavity where the normal equivalence on the outside of the plates is harnessed to accelerate time in a thin stream between the plates. This means that the spectral lines Mills published for his plasma may not match the spectral lines some researchers are looking for in space. Based on Naudts version of relativistic hydrogen I would expect the spectal shift of hydrogen ejected from the suns corona to be equal but in the opposite direction to the plasma created by a cavity. The Casimir cavity effectively creates “negative acceleration “.
The Lorentz Ether theory is presently less preferred than Special relativity but is equally valid mathematically. My proposal is a neo Lorentzian model where the moving ether has been transposed to the temporal axis. As shown in the animation above with the Casimir plates the ether perceives our plane as a flat spatial axis which it only intercepts in the Present. Vacuum fluctuations manifest this intersection by winking into and out of existence as the ether travels from Future to Past. The green arrows describe the flow of vacuum fluctuations between the plates. This theory taken to the limit would mean all matter/waves have two additional sides, one facing the Future and one facing the Past and no intervening matter blocking their view even if they exist in the center of a large mass – the mass becomes a giant ant farm from the temporal perspective. These virtual particles permeate all atomic and subatomic matter establishing the pressure described in the Naudts atomic model.
From Wikipedia: Lorentz’s initial theory created in 1892 and 1895 was based on a completely motionless ether. It explained the failure of the negative ether drift experiments to first order in v/c by introducing a auxiliary variable called “local time” for connecting systems at rest and in motion in the ether. In addition, the negative result of the Michelson-Morley experiment led to the introduction of the hypothesis of length contraction in 1892. However, other experiments also produced negative results and so Lorentz was forced in 1899 and 1904 to expand his theory to (nearly) all orders in v/c by introducing the Lorentz transformation, and to assume the electromagnetic nature of all forces. Guided by the principle of relativity the theory (“The New Mechanics”) was further developed in 1905 by Henri Poincaré, and also by Lorentz in 1909. Poincaré corrected some mistakes of Lorentz’s theory, and maintained that also non-electromagnetic forces had to be taken into account. Many aspects of Lorentz’s theory were incorporated into special relativity (SR) with the works of Albert Einstein and Hermann Minkowski.
Today LET is often treated as some sort of “Lorentzian” or “neo-Lorentzian” interpretation of special relativity. The introduction of length contraction and time dilation for all phenomena in a “preferred” frame of reference (which plays the role of Lorentz’s immobile ether), leads to the complete Lorentz transformation. Because of the same mathematical formalism it is not possible to distinguish between LET and SR by experiment. However, in LET the existence of an undetectable ether is assumed and the validity of the relativity principle seems to be only coincidental, which is one reason why SR is commonly preferred over LET. Another important reason for preferring SR is that the new understanding of space and time was also fundamental for the development of general relativity.