MAY 1960 DEVELOPING INFANTS –?“We expected that the shocked rats would be affected by their experience, and we looked for signs of emotional disorder when they reached adulthood. To our surprise it was the second control group–the rats we had not handled at all–that behaved in a peculiar manner. The behavior of the shocked rats could not be distinguished from that of the control group which had experienced the same handling but no electric shock. Thus the results of our first experiment caused us to reframe our question. Our investigation at the Columbus Psychiatric Institute and Hospital of Ohio State University has since been concerned not so much with the effects of stressful experience–which after all is the more usual experience of infants–as with the effects of the absence of such experience in infancy. –Seymour Levine”
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