There is more to motor imagery than mental simulation

Milan, 9 September 2010 — The human brain is a powerful simulation machine. Sports professionals and amateurs alike are well aware of the advantages of mentally rehearsing a movement prior to its execution and it is not surprising that the phenomenon, known as motor imagery, has already been extensively investigated. However, a new study published in the September 2010 issue of Elsevier’s Cortex (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/cortex) suggests that there may be more to motor imagery than previously thought. A group of neuroscientists in Italy have shown that the brain is able to invent creative new solutions in order to perform impossible actions.

Researchers from two Rome universities (Tor Vergata, La Sapienza) and a rehabilitation institution (IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia) teamed up to investigate the complexity of motor imagery processes. Close similarities are thought to exist between the brain structures that support imagined and real actions, but findings from neuropsychological research tend to contradict this. “In fact, if brain damage disrupts [real] motor functions, simulated actions may or may not show a similar impairment”, notes Dr. Elena Daprati. “We took these inconsistencies as a hint that motor imagery might be a more complex phenomenon than previously understood, and reasoned that people involved in rehabilitation should be made aware of this issue for approaches based on mental practice to be successfully applied to patients.”

The researchers proposed three tasks — commonly assumed to rely on motor imagery — to stroke patients with varying degrees of motor impairment. All patients performed correctly, but only those with milder motor impairments appeared to have used mental simulation during the tasks. Patients with severe impairments, especially of dominant limbs, avoided mentally mimicking the actions that they could no longer perform, using instead alternative mental strategies to complete the tasks. “These findings indicate that the notion of motor imagery should be expanded to include processes that are not limited to simulation, but also rely on creative operations,” said the researchers. “These alternative modes would support the brain’s creative potential to invent novel motor patterns, tools and machinery, and evidently, the ability to imagine what may never be achieved in reality.”

Notes to Editors

The article is “Different motor imagery modes following brain damage” by Elena Daprati, Daniele Nico, Sylvie Duval, Francesco Lacquaniti, and appears in Cortex, Volume 46, Issue 8 (September 2010), published by Elsevier in Italy. Full text of the article featured above is available to members of the media upon request. Please contact the Elsevier press office, [email protected]. To schedule an interview, contact Dr Elena Daprati, [email protected].

About Cortex

Cortex is an international journal devoted to the study of cognition and of the relationship between the nervous system and mental processes, particularly as these are reflected in the behaviour of patients with acquired brain lesions, normal volunteers, children with typical and atypical development, and in the activation of brain regions and systems as recorded by functional neuroimaging techniques. It was founded in 1964 by Ennio De Renzi. The Editor in-chief of Cortex is Sergio Della Sala, Professor of Human Cognitive Neuroscience at the University of Edinburgh. Fax: 0131 6513230, e-mail: [email protected]. Cortex is available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00109452

About Elsevier

Elsevier is a world-leading publisher of scientific, technical and medical information products and services. The company works in partnership with the global science and health communities to publish more than 2,000 journals, including the Lancet (www.thelancet.com) and Cell (www.cell.com), and close to 20,000 book titles, including major reference works from Mosby and Saunders. Elsevier’s online solutions include ScienceDirect (www.sciencedirect.com), Scopus (www.scopus.com), Reaxys (www.reaxys.com), MD Consult (www.mdconsult.com) and Nursing Consult (www.nursingconsult.com), which enhance the productivity of science and health professionals, and the SciVal suite (www.scival.com) and MEDai’s Pinpoint Review (www.medai.com), which help research and health care institutions deliver better outcomes more cost-effectively.

A global business headquartered in Amsterdam, Elsevier (www.elsevier.com) employs 7,000 people worldwide. The company is part of Reed Elsevier Group PLC (www.reedelsevier.com), a world-leading publisher and information provider. The ticker symbols are REN (Euronext Amsterdam), REL (London Stock Exchange), RUK and ENL (New York Stock Exchange).

1 COMMENT

  1. Motor imagery iis used in combination with the HandTutor hand and finger biofeedback system. Training with the HandTutor works on all motor and sensory movement impairments and provides active isolated and interjoint finger and wrist movement practice. The HandTutor is a rehabilitation glove and software which offers impairment oriented training and augmented feedback. The HandTutor encourages active repetitive customized isolated or inter joint coordinated finger and wrist hand exercises and rehabilitates fine movements of the hand and wrist.
    Many Cerebral Palsy patients experience arm and hand movement impairment which makes daily tasks very difficult. Occupational/ Physical therapists hav in their hand therapy repertoire several techniques to maintain and improve the patient’s finger and wrist movement ability including Neuromuscular stimulation and robot-assisted rehabilitation. Additionally an important component in achieving optimal rehabilitation outcome is intensive active movement practice together with task orientated training. The HandTutor is a biofeedback training glove and software that provides customized games and biofeedback to motivate and challenge the patient to do intensive active finger and wrist exercises and to achieve maximal functional recovery. It can be useed even if the patient has very limited hand movement! It has now been purchased by paediatrics departmetn at Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine.

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