The Longer Women Live in Poor Neighborhoods, the Less Likely They Are to Gain Healthy Pregnancy Weight

The longer a woman spends living in a neighborhood low on the socio-economic scale, the more likely she is to not gain enough weight during pregnancy, according to a new study.

Irene Headen, PhD, now a postdoctoral research fellow in Drexel University’s Urban Health Collaborative led the study — which was published in Health & Place — while at the University of California, Berkeley. She and her colleagues looked at associations between time spent living in socioeconomically “deprived” neighborhoods and non-optimal weight gain during pregnancy.

Neighborhood deprivation was measured on a socio-economic scale that included measures such as poverty and unemployment. The researchers found that if a woman — from the start of the study to the beginning of her pregnancy — lived in a neighborhood one step down on the scale from the average level of deprivation, she had an 8 percent increased risk of gaining less than the recommended pregnancy weight.

“One of the most important takeaways from this study is how critical it is to consider the full life course of women when thinking about how to support them through a healthy pregnancy,” Headen said.

Non-optimal pregnancy weight gain has been defined by the Institute of Medicine as less than 25 pounds or more than 35 pounds for “normal weight” women — as defined by body mass index.

Not gaining this advised amount of weight during pregnancy has been tied to low birth weights and preterm birth. So Headen and her fellow researchers used a nationally representative survey conducted between 1979 and 2012 to analyze the residential circumstances of roughly 3,300 women and 5,600 pregnancies.

Since the analysis was tied to a study that spanned so many years, it presented a broad perspective of how changes in a woman’s circumstances over decades might have influenced her health — and subsequently, that of her baby’s — during pregnancy.

The researchers examined results by race but found no significant difference for white, black or Latina women in how long-term residence in low-income neighborhoods affected pregnancy weight. Thus the impact seemed to be linked to where they lived, regardless of race.

The study also looked at “excessive” weight gains during pregnancy — more than 35 pounds among those of “normal” weight. In this case, there was a difference by race.

It was found that long-term residence in poor neighborhoods had less of an impact for black and Latina women than for white women. While black and Latina women who lived in more impoverished neighborhoods longer did not appear to have an extra risk for excessive weight gain compared to the black and Latina mothers living in less impoverished areas, white women in more impoverished neighborhoods actually had an 11 percent greater risk compared to whites in less impoverished neighborhoods.

While this was a somewhat unexpected finding for the study’s authors, Headen suggested that historical, racial residential segregation may explain these findings.

“Black and Latino people are often restricted to certain residential areas based on histories of redlining and other types of racial/ethnic exclusion. Thus, there is less variability in the types of neighborhood environments that black and Latina women reside in, especially in terms of access to resources, such as healthy foods, which would help to avoid gaining too much weight in pregnancy.” Headen said.

However, white mothers might live in a wider variety of neighborhoods, allowing for the greater differences seen in excessive pregnancy weight gain when comparing women living in high- and low-poverty areas.

Overall, Headen said her findings should encourage the public health community to find more ways to support women through healthy pregnancies that are tailored to the specific realities of their neighborhood experience.

“We need to understand that the disadvantaged neighborhoods that girls and women live in as they grow up and transition into early adulthood have long-lasting impacts for them and their children through the experience of pregnancy,” Headen explained. “This places an even greater importance on striving to design equitable neighborhood environments that allow access to opportunity for all.”

1 COMMENT

  1. sex Toys for Couples
    While you might like powerful vibrations inside of you, your clit
    might be very sensitive. With this, you can choose a high level for the
    main toy and a low level for the rabbit touching your clit.

    I really enjoy this function of the toy,
    and I wish that more toys had that option.

    anal sex toys The church does happen to own the banquet hall and has for decades.
    Since they do not use the hall often, they rent it out to support
    their bills. I don’t think anything is wrong with that Catholic churches
    throughout the US rent out their halls for Bingo and other “unGodly” things a party just happens to be one of them..
    anal sex toys

    sex Toys for couples The latest volley between the United States and China has mostly involved advanced manufacturing technologies,
    a dispute that parallels the countries’ fight over steel and aluminum.
    The overall value of the duties at issue is small
    given that total trade between the two countries
    amounts to around $650 billion a year. But economists
    and investors say the tensions could ratchet up quickly, and that the tariffs
    could become more punishing.. sex Toys for couples

    sex toys As for harnesses that use more than one dildo, these strap ons can be used in a variety of ways to pleasure the strapper, the
    strapee or both. The high quality leather Butt dildo harness
    allows both a dildo and anal plug attachment, and the front piece
    that fastens these two pieces is reversible so the two of you can take turns
    sharing the fun. Another multi probe harness we
    recommend, the Vac u lock male set comes with an anal probe on the interior, a penis shaped
    dildo for the exterior and also has a second opening so that you can use your penis for
    double penetrations.: as far as durability, quality and comfort are concerned,
    you can’t beat leather; Its reputation in all acts
    B and S is well deserved, and the cost is generally proportional.
    sex toys

    **** rings For other inquiries, Contact Us. To see all content on The Sun, please use
    the Site Map. The Sun website is regulated by the Independent Press Standards Organisation (IPSO).
    It is pennywise, but pound foolish. This lack of investment
    will make Virginia a less attractive place to live and slow the
    state’s potential for economic growth. Incidentally, as worded,
    the article gives the mistaken impression that in state tuition had been set at
    $1700 annually. **** rings

    butt plugs Consulate in St. Petersburg. On Friday,
    Russia’s Foreign Ministry summoned ambassadors from
    dozens of countries to inform them of further tit for tat expulsions.It was
    unclear what, if anything, Yulia Skripal would remember in the lead up
    to the events on March 4, when she and her father were found
    slumped on a park bench in the quiet English city of Salisbury.
    butt plugs

    male sex toys He KNEW you did not want what he did. Yet he chose to
    do it anyway and to deny you the right to consent. That is on HIM,
    not on you. The bullet is attached by a 2′ cord to the controller pack, which
    is made of smooth plastic. Black elastic straps are used to secure it
    to one’s body, one around the waist and one for each thigh.

    Running on three AA batteries, the Mini Dolphin offers ten different vibration functions, each of which can be set to one of four different intensities..
    male sex toys

    anal sex toys We were off to a good start.Over the course of the weekend, we met some very
    interesting people. We participated in the BDSM Exploratorium.
    I had hot wax dripped on me. Heya Well, first things first: you probably do have a clitoris.
    Take off your panties and sit down so you can prop that mirror up between your thighs.
    “Red,” the bumpy nubbly thing up at the top between your labia,
    is your clitoris! Hooray! There is a little fold of skin over the clitoris, and the clitoris itself hides under that fold of skin. anal sex
    toys

    male sex toys Attached to this main inner strap, is the outer adjustable locking strap.
    This adjustable locking strap is solid 1/8″ thick, 10oz. English Bridle Leather, so it’s soft, thick, and SUPER strong; certainly built to last. On the surface, it looks pretty good. The guy is a good guy. The girl wasn’t forced into anything she was opposed to or strongly did not want male sex toys.

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.