Higher Doses of Oral Semaglutide Show Improved Blood Sugar Control and Weight Loss

A recent study published in The Lancet highlights the effectiveness of higher-dose formulations of oral semaglutide in lowering blood sugar levels and promoting weight loss in patients with diabetes. The study, led by Dr. John Buse, demonstrated that once-daily oral semaglutide at 25 mg and 50 mg doses outperformed the lower 14 mg dose in reducing blood sugar levels and achieving greater weight loss.

A study led by Dr. John Buse and an international team of researchers reveals the benefits of higher-dose formulations of oral semaglutide in the management of blood sugar levels and weight loss for patients with diabetes. The study, published in The Lancet, compared different doses of oral semaglutide and found that the once-daily administration of 25 mg and 50 mg doses was more effective than the lower 14 mg dose in lowering blood sugar levels and promoting weight loss.

Dr. John Buse, the Verne S. Caviness Distinguished Professor of Medicine and co-director of the NC Translational and Clinical Sciences Institute, explains, “Low doses of GLP-1 receptor agonists are really powerful for reducing A1C, or the average glucose in the blood. Whereas, the higher doses are really good for weight reduction. On average, patients lost eight kilograms (17.5 lbs) at 50 milligrams, which is nearly twice as much weight loss that we saw with the lowest dose.”

The study included 1,606 participants, with an average age of 58.2 years, who were enrolled in a phase three program for regulatory approval. The participants were randomized into three groups and asked to take oral semaglutide once daily at different dosages (14 mg, 25 mg, or 50 mg) for 52 weeks.

Blood sugar levels were measured using A1C, with an A1C value of less than 7% considered healthy according to the American Diabetes Association. All participants had A1C levels between 8.0% and 10.5%. The study found that those who received the 25 mg and 50 mg doses of oral semaglutide were more likely to achieve the A1C target of <7.0% compared to those who took the 14 mg dose.

In addition to improving blood sugar control, semaglutide also demonstrated the ability to cause weight loss by suppressing appetite. At the end of the 52-week trial, participants taking the 50 mg dose of oral semaglutide experienced an average weight loss of 17.5 pounds. Those taking the 25 mg and 14 mg doses lost approximately 14.8 pounds and 10 pounds, respectively.

Throughout the trial, researchers observed side effects of the medication. The most common side effect was nausea, which is associated with the drug’s impact on stomach fullness. Some participants, particularly those taking the higher doses of 25 mg and 50 mg, reported vomiting, diarrhea, and/or constipation.

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