Life science experiments on ISS

(Note; The following article will also appear in my other blog http://ko-science.motime.com)

Since the first Station residents arrived Nov. 2, 2000, humans have lived and worked continuously in International Space Station(ISS).
Science on the Station this year was focused on future exploration, with human life science experiments taking on highest priority.

One such experiment called ADUM (Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity) was used to develop the remote medical diagnostic and telemedicine capabilities that will be needed by crews on distant exploration missions. The objectives of the experiment are-
To determine accuracy of ultrasound in novel clinical conditions including: orthopedic, thoracic, and ophthalmic injury and dental/sinus infections; and to assess the ultrasound as a feasible option for monitoring in-flight bone alterations.
To determine optimal training methodologies for advanced ultrasound including CD-ROM based and remote guidance.
Another experiment, called FOOT, evaluates the exercise forces necessary to maintain muscle and bone health on long-duration missions. Wearing black Lycra “biking tights” with 20 electrodes as well as shoes fitted with insoles that measure impact forces on the bottom of the foot, astronaut Foale went through a typical 12-hour on-orbit day, the hardware measured reaction forces in his legs and feet to determine how much exercise these muscles get while in orbit.
A related experiment, called BIOPSY, studied some of the basic fundamental principles involved in the muscle atrophy that occurs during spaceflight. Crewmembers were recording their food consumption for the experiment and biopsies were taken from their calf and foot-flexing muscles before launch. Similar biopsies were again taken immediately when they returned to Earth.

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