Brain Atrophy, Lesions Found in Type 1 Diabetics

Cerebral atrophy is common in young persons with juvenile-onset diabetes, and there is evidence that small blood vessels within the brain’s white matter are damaged in these patients, neurologists at the University at Buffalo and the University of Western Ontario have found. Both findings, which are preliminary, may be important in understanding the development of cognitive impairment seen in older diabetics.

Drug Fights Bacteria by Disrupting Quorum Sensing and Biofilms

Scientists have discovered a promising new drug lead that works by inhibiting the sophisticated bacterial communication system called quorum sensing. The new compound is active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the gram-negative infection that strikes — and usually kills — cystic fibrosis patients and many others whose immune systems are compromised. The bacteria, like many others that have been routinely treated by antibiotics, have developed strains that are antibiotic-resistant.

Gambling Rampant Among U.S. Adults; 82% Took a Chance in 2002

Gambling is widespread — and spreading — in American society with 82 percent of individuals interviewed having gambled in the past year, according to a national survey conducted at the University at Buffalo’s Research Institute on Addictions (RIA) and reported in the Winter 2002 issue of the Journal of Gambling Studies. Previous surveys found gambling participation at 61 percent (1975) and 63 percent (1998). The two most common types of gambling identified in the RIA study were lottery (66 percent) and raffles/office pools/charity gambling (48 percent).

Even Mildly High Blood Pressure Increases Risk of Stroke

People with only mildly elevated systolic blood pressure have a high risk of stroke similar to those with significantly raised systolic or diastolic blood pressure, long-term follow-up of a large national population sample has shown. Moreover, the study found that the increase in stroke risk was not confined to those over 65, conventionally considered most stroke-prone: Systolic hypertension increased the risk of all types of strokes in participants as young as 45.

Physical Activity Prolongs Life, Even for the Obese

Being inactive is more life-threatening than being overweight or obese, results of one of the first studies to consider body weight and physical activity simultaneously and assess their independent effects on mortality has found. For the determinedly sedentary, that’s the bad news. The good news is that participants didn’t need to be marathon runners to decrease their mortality risk.

Novel Method for Assembly of Nanoparticles

New York engineers have developed a novel method for assembling nanoparticles into three-dimensional structures that one day may be used to produce new nanoscale tools and machines. The work could be an important step in fulfilling the immense potential of nanotechnology because it gives scientists and engineers improved control and flexibility in the creation of materials for the manufacture of many nanoscale devices. The researchers used non-uniform AC electric fields generated by microfabricated electrodes — which create a motion known as dielectrophoresis — to stack latex, silica or graphite microparticles into two- and three-dimensional structures of prescribed lengths and composition, held together by the electrical field.

Too Fat to Fight: Obesity Becomes National Security Issue

If the U.S. military needed to recruit substantial numbers of young men and women into their forces quickly, they would face a vexing obstacle: the chubby American. Moreover, military weight limits for women are stricter than for men in all of the forces, making it harder for women to get into the military and if they get in, to stay within weight limits without jeopardizing their health. At least 13 percent of young men and 17 percent of young women of prime recruitment age would fail the weight requirements of all four services, researchers at the University at Buffalo and The Johns Hopkins University have found. “This study shows that obesity is not just a public health issue, it’s a national security concern as well,” said Carlos Crespo, Dr. PH, study co-author and associate professor of social and preventive medicine at the University at Buffalo. “We’re not physically fit to defend ourselves.”