Gender, Time of Day Affect Response to Vaccination

A new study in the journal Psychophysiology reveals that men, but not women, vaccinated in the morning produced a better peak antibody response to both hepatitis A and the influenza strain.

Led by Anna Catriona Phillips of the University of Birmingham, researchers assessed the response to a hepatitis A vaccine in young healthy adults and also examined responses to the annual influenza vaccination in older community-based adults.

In the first study, participants consisted of 75 University of Birmingham students who were vaccinated with the hepatitis A vaccine during a morning session (10 am to 12 pm) or early evening session (4 pm to 6 pm). In the second study, 90 older adults attended their medical practice for the annual influenza vaccination and received the vaccination in the morning between 8 am and 11 am or in the afternoon between 1 pm and 4 pm.

Men vaccinated in the morning showed the strongest immune response. Almost twice as many men showed a twofold increase in antibody response when vaccinated in the morning as opposed to the afternoon.

“If we can replicate these findings in a randomized controlled trial, there would be implications for the time of day for vaccinating those at risk,” the authors conclude. “Adults could be vaccinated at a specific time of day to increase their protection against the flu.”


The material in this press release comes from the originating research organization. Content may be edited for style and length. Have a question? Let us know.

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