The beauty of this approach is multifold. Caging the drug before releasing it at the site of injury minimizes the side effects that one would expect from delivering an active drug throughout the entire body. Moreover, because the brain’s barrier is weakest where it experienced the most trauma, higher concentrations of the drug will enter the brain precisely at the site of damage—thus circumventing the need for time-consuming imaging to locate the damage before proceeding with first-line treatment.

The researchers chose NIR frequency specifically for its ability to safely permeate human tissue without residual side effects, and they designed the nanocage itself to be biodegradable and nontoxic. This emerging intervention is still in its preclinical stages, but the researchers anticipate that it can be packaged as a portable intervention for first responders to immediately administer within a patient’s “golden hour.”

“I’m very hopeful for the impact this drug delivery tool could ultimately have on the millions of patients who experience TBIs each year,” said Mark Humayun, MD, PhD, director of the USC Ginsburg Institute for Biomedical Therapeutics, who is the study’s principal investigator. “A rapid intervention like this could significantly improve patient outcomes, and our team is excited to continue testing this approach to hopefully bring it to the clinic soon.”

Caroline Black, PhD, lead author on the study, says this research was made all the more meaningful because of her personal connection to TBI within her family. “My dad had a severe TBI when he was 17 and I’ve seen how the effects of secondary injury can persist decades after the initial trauma,” said Black, who is a USC-AbbVie postdoctoral fellow specializing in drug delivery sciences at the biopharmaceutical company AbbVie. “Our drug delivery tool has the potential to open new possibilities for rapid treatment of TBI, and I’m excited to see the impact it could have on improving patient outcomes.”

In addition to Humayun and Black, other researchers on the study include Caitlin M. DeAngelo, PhD, of the USC Department of Chemistry; Eugene Zhou and Isaac Asante, PhD, of the USC School of Pharmacy; Stan G. Louie, PharmD, of the USC School of Pharmacy and the USC Dr. Allen and Charlotte Ginsburg Institute for Biomedical Therapeutics; and Nicos A. Petasis, PhD, of the USC Department of Chemistry, the USC School of Pharmacy and the USC Ginsburg Institute.